Installing Hadoop for Fedora & Oracle Linux(Single Node Cluster)

Apache Hadoop and Hadoop Ecosystem

Hadoop is a framework written in Java for running applications on large clusters of commodity hardware and incorporates features similar to those of the Google File System (GFS) and of the Map Reduce computing paradigm. Hadoop’s HDFS is a highly fault-tolerant distributed file system and, like Hadoop in general, designed to be deployed on low-cost hardware. It provides high throughput access to application data and is suitable for applications that have large data sets. Hadoop is best known for Map/Reduce and its distributed file system (HDFS, renamed from NDFS), the term is also used for a family of related projects that fall under the umbrella of infrastructure for distributed computing and large-scale data processing.

Some of the Hadoop projects we will talk about are:

  • HDFS : A distributed filesystem that runs on large clusters of commodity machines.
  • Map Reduce: A distributed data processing model and execution environment that runs on large clusters of commodity machines.
  • Pig: A data flow language and execution environment for exploring very large datasets. Pig runs on HDFS and MapReduce clusters.
  • HBase: A distributed, column-oriented database. HBase uses HDFS for its underlying storage, and supports both batch-style computations using MapReduce and point queries (random reads).
  • ZooKeeper: A distributed, highly available coordination service. ZooKeeper provides primitives such as distributed locks that can be used for building distributed applications.
  • Oozie: Oozie is a workflow scheduler system to manage Apache Hadoop jobs.

 Installing Hadoop

Before we move further we should learn how to install Hadoop on a single node cluster and then on a multi-node cluster. I found great help from this excellent website ( while installing Hadoop. But still I would like to describe the whole procedure because many things didn’t work for me as given there.

First we will learn to install Hadoop on a single node cluster. Tutorial has been tested on Fedora 17 and Oracle Linux as the operating system and Hadoop 1.1.2 or 1.2.0.

Sun Java 7 

Hadoop requires a working Java installation. I will therefore describe the installation of Java 1.7. You can download the tar for Java SE Development Kit 7u21. For the sake of the tutorial I am using jdk-7u21-linux-i586.tar.gz. Please choose the right version according to your machine configuration.

We will use /usr/java directory to place our extracted JDK. You may choose any other directory according to your choice. I assume that tar ball has been downloaded in the download directory. To un-tar the tar ball follow the following steps:

# Change current directory to /home/username/Downloads. Replace username with your current user.
cd /home/username/Downloads
# Un-tar the tar ball. 
tar xzvf /home/username/Downloads/jdk-7u21-linux-i586.tar.gz
# Change the user to root.
su –
# Change current directory to /usr
cd /usr
# Create a new directory named java, if it is already not present
mkdir java
# Move the extracted tar ball to /usr/local/java
mv  /home/username/Downloads/jdk1.7.0_21 /usr/java

After this is done exit out of root user.

Dedicated Hadoop User

We will use a dedicated Hadoop user account for running Hadoop. While that’s not required it is recommended because it helps to separate the Hadoop installation from other software applications and user accounts running on the same machine.

# Switch to root user
su –
# Create a new group named hadoop and new user named hduser.
groupadd hadoop
useradd hduser –g hadoop

This will add the user hduser and the group hadoop to your local machine.

Configuring SSH

Hadoop requires SSH access to manage its nodes, i.e. remote machines plus your local machine if you want to use Hadoop on it (which is what we want to do in this short tutorial). For our single-node setup of Hadoop, we therefore need to configure SSH access to localhost for the hduser user we created in the previous section.

I assume that you have SSH up and running on your machine and configured it to allow SSH public key authentication.

First, we have to generate an SSH key for the hduser user.

su – hduser
ssh-keygen -t rsa -P ""

The second line will create an RSA key pair with an empty password. Generally, using an empty password is not recommended, but in this case it is needed to unlock the key without your interaction (you don’t want to enter the passphrase every time Hadoop interacts with its nodes).

Second, you have to enable SSH access to your local machine with this newly created key.

cat $HOME/.ssh/ >> $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys

The final step is to test the SSH setup by connecting to your local machine with the hduser user. The step is also needed to save your local machine’s host key fingerprint to the hduser user’s known_hosts file. If you have any special SSH configuration for your local machine like a non-standard SSH port, you can define host-specific SSH options in $HOME/.ssh/config

ssh localhost

This should connect you to the localhost.

If the SSH connect should fail, these general tips might help:

  • Enable debugging with ssh -vvv localhost and investigate the error in detail.
  • Check the SSH server configuration in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, in particular the options PubkeyAuthentication (which should be set to yes) and AllowUsers (if this option is active, add the hduser user to it). If you made any changes to the SSH server configuration file, you can force a configuration reload with sudo /etc/init.d/ssh reload
  • Check that your firewall is not blocking the SSH service. If this is the case open your firewall settings and unblock SSH service. Then type service sshd restart and iptables –flush (in case of fedora 17) while being the root user.
  • You can also use namp to check if port 22 is open on your machine.
  • Make sure that /etc/hosts has proper settings.

Disabling IPv6 

One problem with IPv6 is that using for the various networking-related Hadoop configuration options will result in Hadoop binding to the IPv6 addresses. In my case, I realized that there’s no practical point in enabling IPv6 when you are not connected to any IPv6 network. Hence, I simply disabled IPv6. Your mileage may vary.

To disable IPv6, open /etc/sysctl.conf in the editor of your choice and add the following lines to the end of the file:

# disable ipv6
net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 1
net.ipv6.conf.default.disable_ipv6 = 1
net.ipv6.conf.lo.disable_ipv6 = 1

You have to reboot your machine in order to make the changes take effect. You can check whether IPv6 is enabled on your machine with the following command:

cat /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/disable_ipv6

 A return value of 0 means IPv6 is enabled, a value of 1 means disabled (that’s what we want).

Hadoop Installation

Download the Apache Hadoop from Apache mirrors and extract the contents of the Hadoop package to a location of your choice.Use a stable release. Currently the stable version is  hadoop-1.1.2. I am using /home/user/Downloads directory to extract the contents.

# Change your location to the directory where tar was downloaded.
cd  /home/user/Downloads
# Extract the tar
tar xzvf  hadoop-1.1.2.tar.gz
# Rename to Hadoop
mv  hadoop-1.1.2 hadoop
# Change to root user
su –
# Change your current directory to the directory where you want to install Hadoop. This location should be kept same for all the nodes in the cluster. For tutorial we will use /usr/local for this task.
cd /usr/local
# Move extracted contents of Hadoop from /home/user/Downloads to /usr/local
mv /home/user/Downloads/hadoop /usr/local/
# Change owner to hduser
chown –R hduser:hadoop /usr/local/hadoop
# Exit root user

Setting the Environment Variables

Add the following lines to the end of the $HOME/.bashrc file of user hduser. If you use a shell other than bash, you should of course update its appropriate configuration files instead of.bashrc.

# Set Hadoop-related environment variables
export HADOOP_HOME=/usr/local/hadoop
# Set JAVA_HOME (we will also configure JAVA_HOME directly for Hadoop later on)
export JAVA_HOME= /usr/java/jdk1.7.0_21
# Some convenient aliases and functions for running Hadoop-related commands
unalias fs &> /dev/null
alias fs="hadoop fs"
unalias hls &> /dev/null
alias hls="fs -ls"
# If you have LZO compression enabled in your Hadoop cluster and
# compress job outputs with LZOP (not covered in this tutorial):
# Conveniently inspect an LZOP compressed file from the command
# line; run via:
# $ lzohead /hdfs/path/to/lzop/compressed/file.lzo
# Requires installed 'lzop' command.
lzohead () {
    hadoop fs -cat $1 | lzop -dc | head -1000 | less
# Add Hadoop bin/ directory to PATH

After this is done restart your terminal.

Configuring $HADOOP_CONF_DIR/

The only required environment variable we have to configure for Hadoop in this tutorial is JAVA_HOME. Open  $HADOOP_CONF_DIR/ on your favorite editor and add the following lines.

# The java implementation to use.  Required.
export JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.7.0_21

Configuring  $HADOOP_CONF_DIR/*-site.xml

In this section, we will configure the directory where Hadoop will store its data files, the network ports it listens to, etc. Our setup will use Hadoop’s Distributed File System, HDFS, even though our little “cluster” only contains our single local machine.

You can leave the settings below “as is” with the exception of the hadoop.tmp.dir parameter – this parameter you must change to a directory of your choice. We will use the directory /app/hadoop/tmp in this tutorial. Hadoop’s default configurations use hadoop.tmp.dir as the base temporary directory both for the local file system and HDFS, so don’t be surprised if you see Hadoop creating the specified directory automatically on HDFS at some later point.

Now we create the directory and set the required ownerships and permissions:

# Change user to root
su -
mkdir -p /app/hadoop/tmp
chown -R hduser:hadoop /app

If you forget to set the required ownerships and permissions, you will see a when you try to format the name node in the next section).

Add the following snippets between the ... tags in the respective configuration XML file.

In file conf/core-site.xml:

<description>A base for other temporary directories.</description>
<description>The name of the default file system.  A URI whose
scheme and authority determine the FileSystem implementation.  The
uri's scheme determines the config property (fs.SCHEME.impl) naming
the FileSystem implementation class.  The uri's authority is used to
determine the host, port, etc. for a filesystem.</description>

In file conf/hdfs-site.xml:

<description>Default block replication.
The actual number of replications can be specified when the file is created.
The default is used if replication is not specified in create time.

In file conf/mapred-site.xml:

<description>The host and port that the MapReduce job tracker runs
at.  If "local", then jobs are run in-process as a single map
and reduce task.

Formatting the HDFS filesystem via the NameNode

The first step to starting up your Hadoop installation is formatting the Hadoop filesystem which is implemented on top of the local filesystem of your “cluster” (which includes only your local machine if you followed this tutorial). You need to do this the first time you set up a Hadoop cluster.

Caution: Do not format a running Hadoop filesystem as you will lose all the data currently in the cluster (in HDFS)!

To format the filesystem (which simply initializes the directory specified by the variable), run the following command

/usr/local/hadoop/bin/hadoop namenode -format

Starting your single-node cluster

Run the command:


This will startup a Namenode, SecondaryNamenode, Datanode, Jobtracker and a Tasktracker on your machine.

The output will look like this:

[hduser@Fuji ~]$ /usr/local/hadoop/bin/
starting namenode, logging to /usr/local/hadoop/libexec/../logs/hadoop-hduser-namenode-Fuji.out
localhost: starting datanode, logging to /usr/local/hadoop/libexec/../logs/hadoop-hduser-datanode-Fuji.out
localhost: starting secondarynamenode, logging to /usr/local/hadoop/libexec/../logs/hadoop-hduser-secondarynamenode-Fuji.out
starting jobtracker, logging to /usr/local/hadoop/libexec/../logs/hadoop-hduser-jobtracker-Fuji.out
localhost: starting tasktracker, logging to /usr/local/hadoop/libexec/../logs/hadoop-hduser-tasktracker-Fuji.out

A nifty tool for checking whether the expected Hadoop processes are running is jps.

[hduser@Fuji ~]$ jps
6794 NameNode
7362 TaskTracker
7107 SecondaryNameNode
7494 Jps
6938 DataNode
7205 JobTracker

Stopping your single-node cluster

Run the command

[hduser@Fuji ~]$ /usr/local/hadoop/bin/
stopping jobtracker
localhost: stopping tasktracker
stopping namenode
localhost: stopping datanode
localhost: stopping secondarynamenode

In the coming posts we will see how to run a Map/Reduce program on the single node cluster and also learn to setup multi-node cluster.


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